Greenhouse Gas Emmisions
Simmilar than EPBT calculations CO2 pay back times as a measure for the
climate change mitigation potential associated with PV power systems can also be
calculated. CO2 emissions mostly originate from the use of fossil fuels
in the life cycle of the PV power systems (some other CO2 emissions also
occur). Examples of some other CO2 emissions are emissions caused by the
silica reduction process and the CO2 emissions from the consumption of
carbon electrodes in aluminium production. Greenhouse gas emissions other than
CO2 should also be considered since some of them have a large global
warming potential relative to CO2, which make that small emissions of
those gases can have a significant contribution to the total Global Warming
Equivalent as expressed in equivalent CO2 emission. Examples of such
gasses are SF6 or CF4, which may be used in plasma etching
processes or in the cleaning of reactor chambers. Relation between CO2
greenhouse effect and SF6 greenhouse effect equivalent is 1 : 24,000
(CO2 : CF4 - 1 : 6,500). The results of Japanese study shows
that CO2 emissions for silicon-based rooftop PV power systems are up to
20 g-C/kWh, except for c-Si when CO2 emissions from Si material
production are fully included. These emissions are much lower than an average
emission of 126 g-C/kWh for the average electrical output of the Japanese
Environmental Impacts - Links and Studies
- facts about global warming, climatic changes and CO2 emmisions.
ICBE CO2 Reduction Calculator
- this calculator estimates the time and cost required to phase out CO2
production with renewable energy and carbon sinks. You can make custom calculations
in the following table by modifying values or adding different types of sinks.
Since CO2 has a global effect, these systems and sinks could be anywhere
in the world and claims to these reductions can be secured by obtaining emission
reduction credits (ERC's) through this and other institutions.
Brookhaven National Laboratory
- National Photovoltaic Environmental, Health and Safety Assistance Center.
Krewitt, W., Schlomann, B.:
External costs of electricity generation from renewable energies compared to
electricity generation from fossil energy sources;
DLR, Institut für Technische Thermodynamik, Abteilung Systemanalyse und Technikbewertung,
Fraunhofer Institut für System- und Innovationsforschung (ISI),
Abteilung Energiepolitik und Energiesysteme,
Karlsruhe, April 2006, updated May 2007.
Potencial Health and Environmental Impacts Associated With the Manufacture and
Use of Photovoltaic Cells; EPRI Technical Report 1000095,
Sensfuß, F. et al.: Analysis of the Impact of Renewable Electricity
Generation on CO2 Emissions and Power Plant operation in Germany; Fraunhofer Institute
for systems and Innovation Research, Karlsruhe, 10. Symposium Energieinnovation, 13-15 Februar 2008, Graz, Austria.
Klobasa, M., Ragwitz, M.: Gutachten zur CO2-Minderung im Stromsketor durch den Einsatz Erneuerbaren Energien; Bericht
für die Arbeitsgruppe Erneuerbare Energien Statistik (AGEE-Stat) im Auftrag des Zentrum
für Sonnenergie und Wasserstoff-Forschung Baden-Württemberg (ZSW), Fraunhofer
Institut für System und Innovationsforschung, Karlsruhe, Januar 2005.
Alsema, E., Nieuwlaar, E.:
Environmental Aspects of PV Power Systems;
IEA PVPS Task 1 Workshop, Report 97072, 25-27 June 1997.
Alsema, E., de Wild-Scholten, M.J.:
The Real Environmental Impacts of Crystaline Silicon PV Modules: An Analysis
Based on up-to-date Manufacturers Data.
Alsema, E.: Energy Requirements and CO2 Mitigation Potential of PV
Systems; Photovoltaics and the Environment. Keystone, CO, July 1998,
Workshop Proceedings. Brookhaven National Laboratory, Report Number BNL-52557, 1999.
Aguado-Monsonet, M.A.: The environmental impact of photovoltaic technology; Task 6,
INTERSUDMED Project, Institute for Prospective Technological Studies Sevilla,
Spain, January 1998.
Reich, N.H. et al,: CO2 emissions of PV in the perspective of a
renewable energy economy; 22nd European Photovoltaic Solar Energy
Conference, 3-7 September 2010, Milan, Italy.
Beloin-Saint-Pierre D. et al.: Environmental Impact of PV systems:
effects of energy sources used in production of solar panels. 24th
European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference and Exhibition, September 2009.
Morris, S., Ftenakis, V.: MARKAL Analysis of PV Capacity and CO2 Emissions/
Reduction in the US; 3rd World Conference on Photovoltaic Energy Conversion,
WCPEC-3, May 12-16, 2003, Osaka, Japan.